Modal verbs

ENGmodalVerbsX

Want    Be able    Can   Must   Need

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     想要   <xiǎngyào>   [to want]

我也想要回北京!   

<Wǒ yě xiǎngyào huí Běijīng!>   

I also want to return (to) Beijing!

Anyway, combination of  <xiǎng> a  <yào> isn´t that common. It is more usual to use them separately – see below…

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      <xiǎng>    [to want, to think, to miss]

>>>In the meaning “to want”,  is immediately followed by a verb:

 跟她做爱。  

<Wǒ xiǎng gēn tā zuò’ài.>   

I want with her make love.

吃点什么?  

<Nǐ xiǎng chī diǎn shénme?>   

You want to eat a bit (of) what?  (What will you eat?)

想不想去喝点咖啡?  

<Nǐ xiǎng bù xiǎng qù hē diǎn kāfēi?>   

You want not want to go (to) drink a bit (of) coffee?

>>>Followed by subordinate clause,  <xiǎng> usually means TO THINK:

她不会来。  

<Wǒ xiǎng tā bù huì lái.>   

I think she not future prediction come.   (I think she won´t come.)

汉语不太难。  

<Wǒ xiǎng hànyǔ bù tài nán.>   

I think Chinese not too difficult.

>>>Followed by person (or a place, thing) ,  means TO MISS:

你。  

<Wǒ xiǎng nǐ.>   

I miss you.

Play CG-modalVerbs-1(xiang)

 

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   要  <yào>   [to want]
>>>In order to mean WANT, we associate   <yào> with a person or a thing:
.

这个。  

<Wǒ yào zhège.>   

I want this.

一杯啤酒。  

<Wǒ yào yībēi píjiǔ.>   

I want one glass (of) beer.

我不,谢谢。  

<Wǒ bùyào, xièxiè.>   

I not want, thank you.

这个多少钱?  

<Zhège yào duōshǎo qián?>   

This to want how much money?   “How much is this?”

Play CG-modalVerbs-2(yaoA)

:
>>>Combined with a verb,  is an indication of a future, but it can also serve as a formulation of incentive

It is logical. When we advice, we can either use more direct 应该   <yīnggāi> SHOULD (see below), or we use softer way, as in “you don´t want to do this.”

多休息。  

<Nǐ yào duō xiūxi.>   

You want to (should) rest more.

少一点工作。  

<Nǐ yào shǎo yīdiǎn gōngzuò.>   

You want to (should) less a bit work.  “You should work less.”

Play CG-modalVerbs-3(yaoB)
.
>>>In negative incentive (someone shouldn´t do something) we usually reduce 不要 <bùyào> to…
.
    <bié>

走了!  

<Bié zǒule!>  

Don´t go!”

这样!  

<Bié zhèyàng!>   

Don´t (be) this way!  “Don’t be like this!”

Play CG-modalVerbs-4(bie)

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       <huì>   [to be able to]   (learned skill)

说中文吗?  

<Nǐ huì shuō zhōngwén ma?>   

You to be able to speak Chinese ma?

说一点中文。   

<Wǒ huì shuō yīdiǎn zhōngwén.>   

I to be able to speak a little Chinese.

Play CG-modalVerbs-5(hui)

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>>>Another function of    is an indication of a probable future.

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       <néng>   [can]

我今天不来。   

<Wǒ jīntiān bù néng lái.>   

I today not can come.

能不能给我便宜?    

<Nǐ néng bù néng gěi wǒ piányi?>   

You can not can give me cheaper?

能不能帮助我?  

<Nǐ néng bù néng bāngzhù wǒ?>   

You can no can help me?

Play CG-modalVerbs-6(neng)

 

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Silimar to  <néng>  is another word…

   可以   <kěyǐ>   [can, be possible]

这里可以抽烟吗?  

<Zhèli kěyǐ chōuyān ma?>   

Here be possible to smoke ma?

可以这样吗?   

<Kěyǐ zhèyàng ma?>   

Be possible this way ma?   “Is it OK (to do it) like this?”

Play CG-modalVerbs-7(keyi)

 

I see the main difference between 能 <néng> and 可以 <kěyǐ> in the fact, that

<néng> is usually connected with an individual (he can come, because he has time)

可以 <kěyǐ> is more associated with the conditions given by outside world (it is possible to smoke here, this button can be pressed).

Anyway it is not that simple to find the dividing line between individual and outside-world condtitions. That´s why using  of these two modal verbs often mingle. You will have to get it to your ear, eventually. 🙂

 

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   应该   <yīnggāi>   [should]

应该这样做。   

<Nǐ yīnggāi zhèyang zuò.>   

You should this way do.

应该走了。   

<Wǒ yīnggāi zǒu le.>   

I should leave.

应该知道。   

<Tā yīnggāi zhīdào.>   

He should know.   “(I think) he will definitelly know.”

Play CG-modalVerbs-8(yinggai)

 

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    <děi>   [must, have to]

对不起,我走了。   

<Duìbùqǐ, wǒ děi zǒu le.>   

Excuse me I have to leave le.

我还去买一些东西。  

<Wǒ hái děi qù mǎi yīxiē dōngxi.>   

I yet, still have to go (to) buy some stuff.

Play CG-modalVerbs-9(dei)

 

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   需要   <xūyào>  [need]

爸爸,我需要你的钱!  

<Bàba, wǒ xūyào nǐ de qián!>   

Daddy, I need your money!

我真的需要你!   

<Wǒ zhēnde xūyào nǐ!>   

I really need you!

Play CG-modalVerbs-10(xuyao)

 

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