Past Experience

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The main way to set the time in Chinese is through time specification (yesterday, next year…).

Anyway, if we need to emphasize, that we have an experience with particular action, we use particle 过 <guo> and place it right behind a verb.

    <guo>

Compare:
我买汽车。  

<Wǒ mǎi le qìchē.> 

I to buy le a car.  

I BOUGHT A CAR. – in a sense that car-buying action was finished.

 

我买汽车。

<Wǒ mǎi guo qìchē.>   

I to buy guo a car.  

I HAVE BOUGHT A CAR. (I have the experience of buying a car.)

 

他去中国。

<Tā qù le Zhōngguó.>

He to go le (to) China.  

HE WENT TO CHINA.

 

他去中国。

<Tā qù guo Zhōngguó.>

He to go guo (to) China.

HE HAS BEEN TO CHINA.

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Negation: it is a negation in the past, therefore we use 没(有) <méi(yǒu)>, with one important detail –  <guo> unlike  remains in a sentense..

汽车。 

<Wǒ méi mǎi guo qìchē.>

I not to buy guo a car.

I HAVE (NEVER) BOUGHT A CAR.

 

中国。 

<Wǒ méi qù guo Zhōngguó.>

I not to go guo (to) China.

I HAVEN’T BEEN TO CHINA.

Play CG-pastGuo-12
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Past: as with finished action, using the modul… 
.
   有没有 <yǒumeiyou>
 <guo> remains…
.

有没有这部电影?    

<Nǐ yǒu-meiyou kàn guo zhè bù diànyǐng?>   

You youmeiyou to see guo this film?

HAVE YOU SEEN THIS FILM?

 

有没有给你讲这个故事? 

<Tā yǒu-meiyou gěi nǐ jiǎng guo zhège gùshì?>  

He youmeiyou to you to tell guo this story?

HAS HE TOLD YOU THIS STORY?

Play CG-pastGuo-3
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In negative sentences we often use one word…
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   从来 <cónglái>   [never]
从来 <cónglái>  is used only for the past – “I have never done that” – not for future.
.

从来没买过汽车。 

<Wǒ cónglái méi mǎi guo qìchē.>   

never not to buy guo a car.

I HAVE NEVER BOUGHT A CAR.

 

从来没做过中国饭。

<Wǒ cónglái méi zuò guo Zhōngguó fàn.>   

I never not to make guo chinese food.

I HAVE NEVER COOKED CHINESE FOOD.

Play CG-pastGuo-4
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